Analog Devices sought to adopt financial and non-financialperformance measures within a single system, in which the varioustargets were consistent with each other and were in no way incompatible. The product becomes profitable. Once the signs of impending failure are seen, it is important to investigate and identify the causes. Non-financial metrics are quantitative measures that cannot be expressed in monetary units. In certain types of organisation the loss of key personnel can'spell the beginning of the end' for an organisation. Qualitative aspects are often interdependent and it can be difficult to separate the impact of different factors. additional training and development needs must be met. Percentage of new materials used compared with total materials. Breadth of skills and experience of lecturers. Turnover rate (analyse further to identify reasons for leaving). However, the rate of change in themarket place speeds up, and the firm's incrementalist approach is notenough to maintain its advantage, and it is left behind. These include: Discuss, with reasons, two non-financial performance indicators that can be used to monitor and control employees. It is the relative comparisons and changes that are most important. Further, performance measures should be aligned with themanagement structure. Management reporting systems and procedures need to be set up totrack and report the measures regularly. The measures may not always be prioritised. While these aren’t the only non-financial metrics you can measure, these metrics help communicate Marketing’s contribution and impact to the business. 3 Drawbacks of sole reliance on financial performance measures. The impact of this on net profit is all tooobvious. However, R & D is difficult to predict in terms of its success and timing of breakthroughs. Financial targets were set for revenue, revenue growth, profit andreturn on assets, but the idea was that the financial targets would flowfrom achieving the other targets stated above. The following are some of the common non-financial performance measures. companies B and D. The evidence suggests that the company has problems in financial management, production, purchasing and marketing. Marketing Needs Both Financial and Non-Financial Measures for Performance Management. Financial performance indicators (FPIs) - it is still important to monitor financial performance, e.g. shareholders andcustomers. Monthly sales growth. All sorts of practical problems may be encountered in reporting on an indicator. Whatwould you include in your analysis? Difficulties in using and interpreting qualitative information. What do we mean by non-financial metrics? Insureme was the market leader in home and motor vehicle insurancewith a 28% market share. Demand stabilises, and producers compete on price. Thus boards of directors are notheld properly to account over poor performance. Requires a large amount of financial and non-financial information (also a strength). Issues when implementing the strategy map: Level 1: At the top of the organisation is the corporatevision through which the organisation describes how it will achievelong-term success and competitive advantage. Two Thirds of the amounts spent on these initiatives are payroll related. Many companies launch their performance management initiatives solely with KPIs that are financial in nature; but unfortunately, such measures cannot be acted on. And the beauty of non-financial metrics is that you can use them to understand why certain financial results occurred and what you need to change to improve your financial metrics. Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to: Student Accountant articles: visit the ACCA website,, to review the following articles on the topics in this chapter: Chapters 7, 8 and 9 have concentrated on financial performancemeasures. Examples of sales key performance indicators: 1. Discuss five performance indicators, other than decreasing marketshare, which might indicate Insureme might fail as a corporate entity. They may have financial impacts, but it's impossible to quantify them purely by assigning them a dollar figure. For example, airlines use on-time performance, percent of bags lost, and number of customer complaints as nonfinancial performance measures. There are, however, a series of non-financial performance metrics that, once understood, can be used with your financial statements to better guide your business. Johnson argues thatthis limits the rate of change to the speed at which management mightfeel comfortable, which has many advantages (particularly inimplementation), but might be inappropriate in periods when theenvironment moves very quickly. We believe that four categories have significant impact on corporate performance: All of these non-financial metrics fall within the purview of the Marketing organization. 7. costsrecorded in the current year may be wrongly recorded in the next year'saccounts in order to improve current year performance. If potential customers do not know about a company, they will not purchase from it. How should interdivisional transactions be reported? when looking at service quality, considering the cost of obtaining the same quality of service elsewhere. Faced with such difficulties, managers are reluctant to makelarge-scale changes that might risk increasing the problems, and mightbe very difficult to implement adequately. the CSFs for the business andsuitable measures must be developed to measure each performancedimension. JMP is a privately owned IT company. Reducing the average time to bring new product ideas to market. This research was conducted in eight regions in West Sumatera with a total sample of 235 SMEs. KPIs evaluate the success of an organization or of a particular activity (such as projects, programs, products and other initiatives) in which it engages.. Often success is simply the repeated, periodic achievement of some levels of operational goal (e.g. Poor communication to employees/managers - organisations which adopt the balanced scorecard but continue to reward managers on the basis of a narrow range of traditional financial measures are likely to be disappointed with the results. It is worth remembering that case studies are writtenbackwards, where a known outcome is traced back to its origins. Enron and WorldCom). Companies primarily use these measures to evaluate the performance in relation to the customers, internal processes, and Learning & Growth. The final part of the chapter covers the separate topic of corporate failure. In addition, outside the financial arena, there may not be clear and concise reporting on non-financial metrics. This should also improve the ability to respond to customer demands and reduce the need to hold stocks of finished goods. FL Ltd has recently introduced a 'helpline' service, which allowscourse participants to phone in with any problems or queries arisingafter course attendance. Although the product is wellthought of in the market, sales are decreasing slightly. Balanced scorecards can easily become a confusing mass ofmeasures, some of which even contradict each other. Such organizations use non-financial performance measures to evaluate their performance because use of financial indicators becomes irrelevant for them. Fortunately, cloud-based solutions make it easy to gather this information and create a single source of KPI data that finance – and the rest of the organization – can trust. This is in contrast with the performance pyramid which tends to concentrate on customers and shareholders and is also in contrast with value based management (covered in chapter 7) which prioritises the needs of shareholders. JMP has had some success when marketing spend was relatively low. Common financial metrics include earnings, profit margin, average order value, and return on assets. Unfortunately the adverse consequences of internal rivalryremain latent until it is too late to redress them. In extreme circumstances it can lead to outright fraud(e.g. The PerformancePrism is based on the principle that the performance of an organisationdepends on how effectively it meets the needs and requirements of allits stakeholders takes stakeholder requirements as the start point forthe development of performance measures rather than the strategy of theorganisation. 4. Examples are number of enquiries, number of customers per day, average sales value, number of quoted jobs lost, customer satisfaction and so on. Non-financial performance measures can provide deep insights into inner workings of your business and serve as leading indicators of future financial performance. It is important to have both financial and non-financial measures for Marketing. Such measures are often used to evaluate the time, quality or quantity of a business activity. company E. A score of 3 or above companies are financially sound, i.e. Conventional information systems are usually designed to carry quantitative information and are sometimes less able to convey qualitative issues. It may sometimes be necessary to seek external advice to help to identify the problem. Ashas been seen throughout the discussion of performance measures in thistext, the selection of appropriate indicators and measures is critical.The selected measures form the goals that management communicates tostaff as being important. The starting point in producing a balanced scorecard isidentifying the strategic requirements for success in the firm.Typically, those strategic requirements will relate to products,markets, growth and resources (human, intellectual and capital). Measures should be tracked over time and compared with those of competitors. Non-Financial Indicators. Percentage of contracts with cost overruns. Why Non-Financial Measures Matter. The more experience you gain, the greater your opportunity to create a wider range of predictive, forward-looking managerial tools will become. For example, amanager may decide to delay investment in order to boost the short-termprofits of their division. The balanced scorecard includes financial measures (these revealthe results of actions already taken) and non-financial measures (theseare drivers of future financial performance). Having products rated 'number one' by at least 50% of customers, based on their attitudes to whether the company was making the right products, performance, price, reliability, quality, delivery, lead time, customer support, responsiveness, willingness to co-operate and willingness to form partnerships. How is revenue calculated and when is it recorded? Analog Devices had as its main corporate objective: 'Achieving ourgoals for growth, profits, market share and quality creates theenvironment and economic means to satisfy the needs of our employees,stockholders, customers and others associated with the firm. There are four essential activities which have to be executedrigorously if the implementation of the balanced scorecard is tosucceed: Steps involved in implementing the scorecard, The steps in implementing the balanced scorecard. customer satisfaction reports, repeat business ratings, access and availability, discuss the difficulties in interpreting data on qualitative issues, discuss the significance of brand awareness and company profile and their potential impact on business performance, evaluate the 'balanced scorecard' approach as a way in which to improve the range and linkage between performance measures, evaluate the 'performance pyramid' as a way in which to link strategy, operations and performance, evaluate the work of Fiitzgerald and Moon that considers performance measurement in business services using building blocks for dimensions, standards and rewards, assess the potential likelihood of corporate failure, utilising quantitative and qualitative performance measures, assess and critique quantitative and qualitative corporate failure prediction models, identify and discuss performance improvement strategies that may be adopted in order to prevent corporate failure, discuss how long-term survival necessitates consideration of life-cycle issues. Finally, a large part of the problem is caused by the mental modelsof those who have control of the strategy within an organisation. Another key area is access and availability of products and services, as failure in these areas can cause a loss of customers. Other possible sources of non-financial information related to product and service quality and customer satisfaction are: repeat business ratings, which is useful as a complement to measurements of absolute sales. Fully satisfying thosedemands has a cost and sometimes compromises may have to be made inorder to contain that cost. Sales and administration costs as a percentage of sales revenue. The company has lost its market share over thelast two years and this may lead to the demise of the company. Capabilities – What capabilities do we need to put inplace to allow us to operate, maintain and enhance our processes? Non-financial metrics are quantitative measures that cannot be expressed in monetary units. Training is at one of two levels – forclerical staff, instructing them on how to use simple financialaccounting computer packages, and for management, on managementaccounting and financial management issues. Practical example of scorecard implementation. Products are innovative, but operational andmanagement control procedures appear weak. Evidencesuggests that a few key personnel have left the company. These should bein line with the overall strategic objectives and vision of theorganisation. The identification of changes in important associations is likely to emerge from such efforts. The use of financial performance indicators has limited benefit tothe company since they do not convey the full picture regarding thefactors that drive long-term success and maximisation of shareholderwealth, e.g. In many situations, sensitivity has to be used in interpreting the output of an information system. it shows the link between strategy and day to day operations. For example, a new product innovation will not impact onprofit, cash flow and market share achieved in the past – but a highlevel of innovation provides an indicator of how profit, cash flow andmarket share will move in the future. Information in the form of opinions is difficult to measure and interpret. Financial Metrics. How are the measures of product and service quality related to brand awareness and company profile? Suggest some performance measures for a buildingcompany involved in house building and commercial property and operatingin a number of different countries. The growth inturnover is slowing down, profitability is falling and the debt ratiois high. The Performance Prism is an approach to performance management which aims to effectively meet the needs and requirements of all stakeholders. This method helps assess not only the financial … Further investigation is needed for those organisations with scores between 1.81 and 2.99. Problems with product or service quality can have a long-termimpact on the business and they can lead to customer dissatisfaction andloss of future sales. Inorder to compete successfully it is important that external factors(such as customer satisfaction and competitors' actions) are alsoconsidered. Level 2: This focuses on the achievement of anorganisation's CSFs in terms of market-related measures and financialmeasures. 18 Key Performance Indicator Examples & Definitions. identify and discuss operational changes to performance management systems required to implement the performance improvement strategies. Our successdepends on people who understand the interdependence and congruence oftheir personal goals with those of the company and who are thusmotivated to contribute towards the achievement of those goals.'. company C. A score between 1.81 and 2.99 means that they need further investigation, i.e. A score of more than 15 out of a possible 45 is consideredunsatisfactory. NON-FINANCIAL INDICATORS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES Jan Dobrovic, Maya Lambovska, Peter Gallo, Veronika Timkova Abstract Measuring enterprise performance plays an important role in maximizing business efficiency. Regardless of the size, age, and industry, each and every company needs to be conscious of their financial performance. Anexample of this has already been identified by PFM in the performanceevaluation and incentive scheme for managers. This study aims to examine contribution of Non-Financial Performance Indicator (NFPI) to business performance and their effects on social capital of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in embroidery and weaving craftsmanship in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Prices are reduced to sustain demand and to slow the decline in sales volume. a link should be established between the new strategic goals and CSFs, performance targets should be set at all levels and these should relate to the achievement of strategic objectives, continuous review of actual performance against targets will be required. Failure to adapt your product to meet customer needs. Improve marketing activity to address customer satisfaction issues and increase sales. This Product includes content from the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) and the International Ethics Standards Board for. Strategic drift is a term devised by Johnson (1988) todescribe as a warning to those who champion the idea of strategyemerging as a series of logical, incremental steps. Any decision to change product specification or pricing will affect competitors who will then choose whether or not to respond. A lack of newproduct/service introduction may arise from a shortage of fundsavailable for re-investment. On investigation, you ascertain that the company has beenmaking losses for the last two years. It is difficult to record and process data of a non-financial, i.e. PFM appears to be a company which wants to make asignificant contribution to the companies it invests in and presumablyhas experience which investee businesses can benefit from. Improve credit control to reduce the debtor days down. As a result, NFPIs are now also used to monitor and control staff. Decisions often appear to have been made on the basis of quantitative information; however qualitative considerations often influence the final choice, even if this is not explicit. The relative importance of different factors will vary from company to company and between customers, but achieving high quality means ensuring all the factors of the product or service package meet customer requirements. other attributes such as patents or trademarks. More revolutionary change must damage theparadigm before it can begin. They can provide deeper insights into the inner workings of your business. Examples Of Non-Financial Indicators. Material for standard courses is bought in from a group company, who also print up the customer-specific course material. As mentioned, so far we have concentrated on financial performancemeasures. Percentage of utilisation of fixed assets – vehicles, plant and machinery. As discussed, it is important that a business appraises bothfinancial and non-financial performance. But, before we jump straight into examples, here’s a quick refresher on what Key Performance Indicators are and why they’re a critical part of managing your plan on an ongoing basis. Expenses do not seem to have been controlled, increasing at afaster rate than turnover. The company has also a wealth of internal monitoringsystems that record equipment faults and failures, and report equipmentand staff availability. 5. 5.1 Introduction. PFM's belief is that there is a lack of 'real' accountabilitybetween boards of directors and shareholders and that too oftenshareholders concentrate on short-term financial gains. Falling demand and increasing interest rates can precipitate thedemise of organisations. This is offered free of charge. 7.4 Fitzgerald and Moon's building block model. It must be accepted that there aresituations where there are no feasible solutions, and there might bebetter uses of the shareholders' funds than attempts to turn thebusiness round. The measures chosen may not align with the strategy and/or vision of the organisation. Make sure you select a few from each category so that your strategy is well balanced across the organization. Defective items in production: to reduce defects in production from 5,000 per month to fewer than 10 per month. It is important to see that management cannotchange a corporate paradigm, partly because they are themselves caughtup in it, and partly because some elements of it are not amenable tomanagement techniques. Organisations have often found it difficult to translate the corporate vision into behaviour and actions which achieve the key corporate objectives. Sales demand is low whilst potential customers learn about the item. It takes stakeholder requirements as the start point for the development of performance measures rather than the strategy of the organisation. This chapter discusses the use on non-financial performanceindicators (NFPIs) and introduces some of the models that are availablefor evaluating financial and non-financial performance. Using the above financial and qualitative data provide: Strategy mapping was developed by Kaplan and Norton as an extensionto the balanced scorecard and to make implementations of the scorecardmore successful. Thirdly, it may be that management is entirely aware that thestrategic situation is worsening, but be unable to see opportunities toinnovate or diversify out of trouble. It also has other wants and needs relating tocommunication, financial, strategic and ethical performance. Only in hindsight are thedynamics clear. Non-financial performance measures, on the other hand, can serve as leading indicators of future financial performance and can provide insight as to organization’s impact on stakeholders and society. 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Manipulate results, e.g indicate your staff are not happy at work evaluate performance are needed for more data... In this chapterhave already been touched upon in Paper F5 ( 1 Failing.